# 7. Driving a Train¶

Once you have pressed Start, Open Rails loads and processes all the data needed to run the game. During this phase, the route’s splash screen is shown with an indicator bar at the bottom.

The first time a session is loaded, an animated bar just shows activity. Subsequent loads of that session show the bar growing across the screen to indicate progress.

If a timetable has been selected, then the game also simulates the progress of the timetable from the first train in the timetable up to start time of the player’s train. This is done at high speed, but may still take some time. A second bar appears above the first one to show the progress of this stage.

During loading, if logging is selected, the log file OpenRailsLog.txt will already begin storing data.

## 7.2. Entering the Simulation¶

At the end of the loading phase, you are in the cab of the train you will drive.(Note: some newer locomotives have 3D cabs - if no cab interior display appears, then type <Alt+1> to switch between 2D and 3D cabs.) Depending on the configuration of the activity (in case of activity mode), your train will be in motion or stopped. To look around in the simulation, you can select different views using the keyboard, as described in Changing the View.

### 7.2.1. Cab Letter-Boxing¶

OR manages not only cab interiors using 2D images in a MSTS-compatible way, but also supports 3D models. Most 2D cab images follow MSTS practice, being 1024 x 768 pixels to suit monitors with a 4:3 aspect ratio.

So, the problem arises – how to display these 4:3 cabs on a 16:9 or 16:10 monitor?

One possibility is to enlarge these images to fill the width of wider monitors, as shown in the image below.

In doing so, we lose a portion from the top and bottom of the image. You can use the Up and Down Arrow keys to pan and reveal these missing portions.

Instead of enlarging the image, OR can also ‘letterbox’ it by showing the full height and filling the missing space with black bars. You can activate this mode in-game by pressing Ctrl+1.

## 7.3. Open Rails Driving Controls¶

Open Rails follows MSTS very closely, providing controls to drive steam, electric and diesel locomotives, both on their own or working together, but also offers additional capabilities.

A very wide range of systems and instruments specified in the ENG and CVF files is supported.

To control the train, you have at your disposal a set of keyboard commands that is equivalent to those of MSTS, plus some new ones. You can get a printable version of the command set as described in paragraph Keyboard options, or you can press <F1> to immediately get the scrollable F1 Information Window as shown and described below.

Alternatively, you can operate the cabview controls by mouse click (buttons) and mouse drag (levers and rotary switches).

### 7.3.1. Throttle Control¶

Steam locomotives have a continuous throttle or regulator, but many diesel and electric locomotives have a notched throttle which moves only in steps. To avoid jerks, some of these steps may be smooth, where the power is gradually and automatically adjusted to achieve the setting.

### 7.3.2. Dynamic Braking¶

Dynamic braking is the use of the traction motors of a locomotive (electric or diesel-electric) as generators to slow the train. Initially, dynamic braking was applied in mountainous territory where conventional freight-car brakes were prone to overheating on long downgrades. It was also limited to speeds above 10mph. Dynamic braking controls are usually notched.

In OR, the dynamic brake (controlled by the keys <,> and <.>) is not available unless the throttle is fully closed; similarly the throttle is not available unless the dynamic brake is fully released (off).

As defined in the CVF file, the tractive and braking forces may be shown on two different instruments, on one instrument with two needles or on a single instrument where the braking is shown as a negative value.

### 7.3.3. Combined Control¶

Some locomotives are fitted with a combined control where a single lever is used to provide throttle and brake control together, with negative throttle positions used to apply the brake. The brake element may be either dynamic or conventional train brakes.

There may be a delay changing between throttle and brake operation, representing the time required to change the operation of the traction motors from motors to generators.

### 7.3.4. Blended Dynamic Brake¶

Some locomotives have blended dynamic brake, which means that the trainbrake lever also controls the dynamic brake. Currently this is implemented to be MSTS compatible, the dynamic brake force percentage follows the train brake pipe pressure (full service/suppression will set 100% dynamic brake). The blending percentage run up/ run down follows the airbrake application MaxApplicationRate(), and release rates MaxReleaseRate(), and also respects the dynamic brake delay setting DynamicBrakesDelayTimeBeforeEngaging() .eng parameters.

Blending can also work if there is no dynamic brake lever configured for the locomotive. If there is dynamic brake lever defined, then the higher command will be applied, except if OrtsDynamicBlendingOverride( 1 ) is added to the Engine() block, which makes the lever override the blending command, if the dynamic brake lever is not at full release position.

OrtsDynamicBlendingForceMatch( 1 ) parameter can be added to Engine() block, which makes the dynamic brake system to try to achieve the same brake force as the airbrake would have (even if the airbrake is bailed off), in the current train brake lever position. Example: if the trainbrake has 22 kN brake force at 40% train brake setting, then the dynamic brake will try to achieve, and maintain 22 kN braking force, instead of just setting 40% dynamic brake percentage.

For a full list of parameters, see Developing OR Content - Parameters and Tokens

### 7.3.5. Refill¶

Diesel and steam locomotives must refill their supplies of fuel occasionally, perhaps daily, but steam locomotives need water more frequently and have a range of little more than 100 miles. Use the <T> key to refill with fuel or water at a fuel or water supply location. Use the <Y> key to pick up water from a water trough under a moving locomotive.

If the locomotive or tender is alongside the pickup point, e.g. a water tank, then the refilling takes place as the key is held down. If the locomotive is further away, then the distance to the nearest pickup is shown instead.

Note also that the key <Ctrl+T> will provide immediate refill at any time.

### 7.3.6. Specific Features to Optimize Locomotive Driving¶

You are encouraged to read the chapter on Open Rails Physics to optimize your driving capabilities and to achieve a realistic feeling of what happens in a real moving train.

### 7.3.7. Examples of Driving Controls¶

For content developers

• For continuous throttle, see MSTS model TRAINS\TRAINSET\ACELA\acela.eng
• For a notched non-smooth throttle, see TRAINS\TRAINSET\GP38\gp38.eng
• For a combined throttle and dynamic brake, see TRAINS\TRAINSET\DASH9\dash9.eng
• For a combined throttle and train brake, see TRAINS\TRAINSET\SERIES7000\series7000.eng

## 7.4. Driving aids¶

Open Rails provides a large number of driving aids, which support the player during train operation.

### 7.4.1. F1 Information Monitor¶

The F1 key displays the following set of panels in a tabbed format, selected by clicking with the mouse on the desired heading:

Key Commands: displays the actions of the keyboard keys

Briefing: displays what the activity or timetable creator has entered as information to be provided to the player:

Timetable: shows the list of the station stops, if any, with scheduled and actual times of arrival and departure. During the activity the actual performance will be shown on the F10 Activity Monitor.

Work Orders: if defined by the activity or timetable creator, lists the coupling and uncoupling operations to be performed. When an operation has been completed, the string Done appears in the last column:

Procedures: basic instructions for driving trains in Open Rails.

### 7.4.2. F3¶

This key is not currently used.

### 7.4.3. F4 Track Monitor¶

This window, which is displayed by pressing F4, has two different layouts according the the train’s control mode: Auto Signal mode, Manual mode or Explorer mode. (It is strongly suggested to follow the link and read the related paragraph.)

Auto Signal or Auto mode is the default mode when running activities or timetables.

There are however two main cases where you must switch to Manual mode by pressing <Ctrl+M>:

• when the activity requires shunting without a predefined path
• when the train runs out of control due to SPAD (Signal Passed At Danger or passing a red signal) or exits the predefined path by error. If such situations occur you will usually get an emergency stop. To reset the emergency stop and then move to correct the error, you must first switch to Manual mode.

To switch to manual mode press <Ctrl+M>. In timetable mode you must first stop the train to pass to manual mode.

You can return to auto mode by pressing <Ctrl+M> again when the head of the train is again on the correct path, with no SPAD situation. In standard situations you can also return to auto mode while the train is moving. Details are described in the paragraph of the link shown above.

Track Monitor display in Auto Signal mode:

Track Monitor display in Manual mode / Explorer mode:

Track Monitor: Displayed Symbols (common for Auto and Manual mode unless indicated otherwise) :

Notes on the Track Monitor:

• Distance value is displayed for first object only, and only when within distance of the first fixed marker. Distance is not shown for next station stop.

• When no signal is within the normal display distance but a signal is found at a further distance, the signal aspect is displayed in the advance signal area. The distance to this signal is also shown. This only applies to signals, not to speedposts.

• For Auto mode:

• If the train is moving forward, the line separating the Backward information area is shown in red, and no Backward information is shown.
• If the train is moving backward, the separation line is shown in white, and Backward information is shown if available.
• For reversal points, see here.
• For Manual mode:

• If the train is on its defined path (and toggling back to Auto control is possible), the own train symbol is shown in white, otherwise it is shown in red.
• The colour of the track-lines is an indication of the train’s speed compared to the maximum allowed speed:

• Dark green: low speed, well below allowed maximum
• Light green: optimal speed, just below maximum
• Orange: slight overspeed but within safety margin
• Dark red: serious overspeed, danger of derailment or crashing

Note that the placement of the display objects with respect to the distance offset is indicative only. If multiple objects are placed at short intermediate distances, the offset in the display is increased such that the texts do not overlap. As a result, only the first object is always shown at the correct position, all other objects are as close to their position as allowed by other objects closer to the train.

Pressing <Shift+F4> toggles the Track Monitor’s immersive mode. In this mode, the window conceals upcoming signal aspects and upcoming signal speed limits and does not display upcoming diverging switches. However, it retains the locations of signals, mileposts, permanent speed limits, sidings, and stations. This level of assistance reflects the route knowledge that a train driver could be expected to know by memory.

### 7.4.4. F5 Train Driving Info¶

By pressing <F5> you get some important data displayed in a dedicated window.

Pressing <Shift+F5> toggles between the full and the abbreviated text mode. You may also switch mode by clicking on the yellow arrow symbol. The default mode is full text.

The window displays data appropriate to each type of locomotive as follows.

The Steam locomotive:

The Steam locomotive using manual firing and AI Fireman:

Boiler pressure indicator:

The Electric locomotive:

The Diesel locomotive:

To help the user with ageing eyesight, the Time value is clickable as indicated by the white arrow below. This action toggles between Regular and Bold font styles. The style of font used in this window is also applied to the Multiplayer Info window if it’s open.

ABBREVIATIONS TABLE
Ordered by:   Locomotive Ordered by:
Field names Abbreviations Type Abbreviations Field names
AI Fireman AIFR Steam AIFR AI Fireman
Autopilot AUTO All AUTO Autopilot
Battery switch BATT Diesel and Electric BATT Battery switch
Boiler pressure PRES Steam BDYN Dynamic brake
Boiler water glass WATR Steam BLOC Engine brake
Boiler water level LEVL Steam BTRN Train brake
Circuit breaker CIRC Electric CCOK Cylinder cocks
Cylinder cocks CCOK Steam CIRC Circuit breaker
DerailCoeff DRLC All DIRC Direction
Direction DIRC All DOOR Doors open
Doors open DOOR All DRLC DerailCoeff
Dynamic brake BDYN Diesel and Electric ENGN Engine
Electric train supply TSUP Diesel and Electric FIRE Fire mass
Engine ENGN Diesel FPS FPS
Engine brake BLOC All FUEL Fuel levels
Fire mass FIRE Steam GEAR Fixed gear
Fixed gear GEAR Steam GEAR Gear
Fuel levels FUEL Steam GRAT Grate limit
Gear GEAR Diesel LEVL Boiler water level
Grate limit GRAT Steam PANT Pantographs
Master key MAST Diesel and Electric POWR Power
Pantographs PANT Electric PRES Boiler pressure
Power POWR Electric REGL Regulator
Regulator REGL Steam RETN Retainers
Replay RPLY All REVR Reverser
Retainers RETN If set on all cars RPLY Replay
Reverser REVR Steam SAND Sander
Sander SAND All SPED Speed
Speed SPED All STEM Steam usage
Steam usage STEM Steam THRO Throttle
Throttle THRO Diesel and Electric TIME Time
Time TIME All TRAC Traction cut-off relay
Traction cut-off relay TRAC Diesel TSUP Electric train supply
Train brake BTRN All WATR Boiler water glass
Wheel WHEL All WHEL Wheel

### 7.4.5. F6 Siding and Platform Names¶

Hit the <F6> key to reveal labels naming the siding and platforms. Hit it again to hide them.

Items more distant will show more faded and platforms disappear altogether if more than 1km away from the user; sidings disappear if more than 0.5km away.

Use <Shift+F6> to cycle through platforms only (in yellow), sidings only (in orange), and both together.

If the user is in Activity Mode or Timetable Mode, then a 4th step is added to the cycle and this step removes any labels not relevant to the activity or timetable.

### 7.4.6. F7 Train Names¶

Hitting the <F7> key displays train service names (player train always has Player as identification).

Hitting <Shift+F7> displays the rolling stock IDs.

In a multiplayer session, player-controlled trains will have the id specified by the player:

### 7.4.7. F8 Switch Monitor¶

Use the Switch Monitor, enabled by the F8 key, to see the direction of the turnout directly in front and behind the train.

There are 4 ways to change the direction:

• Click on the turnout icon in the Switch Monitor;
• Press the G key (or, for the turnout behind the train, the <Shift+G> key);
• Hold down the Alt key and use the left mouse button to click on the switch in the Main Window;
• Use the dispatcher window.

Please note that with the last two methods you can throw any switch, not only the one in front but also the one behind the train.

However, note also that not all switches can be thrown: in some cases the built-in AI dispatcher holds the switch in a state to allow trains (especially AI trains) to follow their predefined path.

The arrow and eye symbols have the same meaning as in the track monitor. The switch is red when it is reserved or occupied by the train, and green when it is free.

A switch shown in green can be operated, a switch shown in red is locked.

### 7.4.8. F9 Train Operations Monitor¶

The Open Rails Train Operations window is similar in function to the F9 window in MSTS, but includes additional features to control the air brake connections of individual cars. For example, it is possible to control the connection of the air brake hoses between individual cars, to uncouple cars without losing the air pressure in the train’s air brake hose, or uncouple cars with their air brakes released so that they will coast.

The unit which the player has selected as the unit from which to control the train, i.e. the lead unit, is shown in red.

Cars are numbered according to their UiD in the Consist file (.con) or UiD in the Activity file (.act). Scrolling is accomplished by clicking on the arrows at the left or right bottom corners of the window.

Clicking on the coupler icon between any two cars uncouples the consist at that point.

You can also uncouple cars from your player train by pressing the <U> key and clicking with the mouse on the couplers in the main window.

By clicking on any car in the above window, the Car Operation Menu appears. By clicking in this menu it is possible:

• to apply and release the handbrake of the car;
• to power on or power off the car (if it is a locomotive). This applies for both electric and diesel locomotives;
• to connect or disconnect locomotive operation with that of the player locomotive;
• to connect or disconnect the car’s air hoses from the rest of the consist;
• to toggle the angle cocks on the air hoses at either end of the car between open and closed;
• to toggle the bleed valve on the car to vent the air pressure from the car’s reservoir and release the air brakes to move the car without brakes (e.g. humping, etc.).

By toggling the angle cocks on individual cars it is possible to close selected angle cocks of the air hoses so that when the cars are uncoupled, the air pressure in the remaining consist (and optionally in the uncoupled consist) is maintained. The remaining consist will then not go into Emergency state.

When working with cars in a switch yard, cars can be coupled, moved and uncoupled without connecting them to the train’s air braking system (see the Alt+F5 HUD for Braking). Braking must then be provided by the locomotive’s independent brakes. A car or group of cars can be uncoupled with air brakes active so that they can be recoupled after a short time without recharging the entire brake line (Bottling the Air). To do this, close the angle cocks on both ends of the car or group before uncoupling. Cars uncoupled while the consist is moving, that have had their air pressure reduced to zero before uncoupling, will coast freely.

In Open Rails, opening the bleed valve on a car or group of cars performs two functions: it vents the air pressure from the brake system of the selected cars, and also bypasses the air system around the cars if they are not at the end of the consist so that the rest of the consist remains connected to the main system. In real systems the bypass action is performed by a separate valve in each car. In the Alt+F5 HUD for Braking display, the text Bleed appears on the car’s display line until the air pressure has fallen to zero.

### 7.4.9. F10 Activity Monitor¶

The Activity Monitor is similar in function to MSTS. It records the required Arrival time of your train and the actual arrival time as well as the required Depart time and the actual departure time.

A text message alerts the engineer as to the proper departure time along with a whistle or other departure sound.

### 7.4.10. Compass Window¶

Open Rails software displays a compass that provides a heading based on the camera’s direction together with its latitude and longitude.

To activate the compass window press the <0> key. To deactivate the compass window, press the <0> key a second time.

### 7.4.11. Odometer¶

The odometer display appears in the centre of the main window, toggled on or off by the keys <Shift+Z>. The direction of the count is toggled by the keys <Shift+Ctrl+Z>, and the odometer is reset or initialized by <Ctrl+Z>.

When set for counting down, it initializes to the total length of the train. As the train moves, the odometer counts down, reaching zero when the train has moved its length. When set for counting up, it resets to zero, and measures the train’s total movement.

For example, if the odometer is set for counting down and you click Ctrl+Z as the front of the train passes a location, then when it reaches zero you will know, without switching views, that the other end of the train has just reached the same point, e.g. the entrance to a siding, etc.

The odometer can be accessed also through cabview controls, if they are defined within the cabview, see here.

### 7.4.12. Activity Evaluation¶

#### 7.4.12.1. Description¶

This feature displays a real-time evaluation of the player’s performance during the activity run and a final report at the end of an activity. The evaluation reports various parameters to provide to the player info in order to improve his train driving ability. While the activity is running, relevant data are stored and displayed. The stored data is used to generate a report at the end of the activity.

#### 7.4.12.2. How It Works¶

Activity evaluation is enabled only for Activity mode. Checking some checkboxes within the various option tabs of the main menu provides additional parameters for the activity evaluation.

Here an example about the Options/General tab:

and here an example about the Options/Simulation tab:

Checkboxes shown as unchecked in the two above pictures may be checked or unchecked, but don’t have any effect on activity evaluation.

A tab named “Evaluation” is present on the F1 Help Information Monitor. Once the activity is running it displays dynamic information about the player train performance up to that moment.

Clicking Actual status: () shows an expanded real-time display.

Clicking Actual status: () collapses all items.

Once the activity has ended, as soon as the player views the Evaluation tab, a report file is created and shown in an editor window as follows.

This report is made up of several sections.

The report file OpenRailsEvaluation.txt is saved alongside the log file OpenRailsLog.txt and the default location for this is the Windows Desktop.

The Save Game (F2) command also copies any evaluation report alongside the save files so it can be kept and reviewed. This copy is deleted when the other files for that save are deleted.

### 7.4.13. Basic Head Up Display (HUD)¶

By pressing <Alt+F5> you get some important data displayed at the top left of the display in the so-called Head Up Display (HUD). If you want the HUD to disappear, press <Alt+F5> again.

The HUD has 6 different pages. The basic page is shown at game start. To sequentially switch to the other pages press <Shift+Alt+F5>. After having cycled through all of the extended HUD pages, the basic page is displayed again.

The basic page shows fundamental information. The other pages go into more detail, and are used mainly for debugging or to get deeper information on how OR behaves. They are listed in the Analysis tools subchapter.

The following information is displayed in the basic display:

• Version = The version of the Open Rails software you are running
• Time = Game time of the Activity
• Speed = the speed in Miles/Hr. or Kilometers/Hr.
• Direction = Position of the Reverser - Electric, Diesel and Steam.
• Throttle = Displays the current position of the throttle, expressed as a percentage of full throttle. Throttle correctly uses Notches and configured % of power for Diesel engines or % of throttle for steam engines.
• Train Brake = Shows the current position of the train brake system and the pressure value of the train brakes. Braking correctly reflects the braking system used; hold/release, self-lapping or graduated release. The Train brake HUD line has two Brake Reservoir pressure numbers: the first is the Equalization Reservoir (EQ) and the second is the Brake Cylinder (BC) pressure. The two BP numbers report the brake pressure in the lead engine and in the last car of the train. The unit of measure used for brake pressure is defined by the option Pressure unit.
• Engine Brake = percentage of independent engine brake. Not fully releasing the engine brake will affect train brake pressures.
• Dynamic brake = if engaged, shows % of dynamic brake
• Engine = shows the running status of the engine. In case of a gear-based engine, after the Engine line a Gear line appears displaying the actual gear. N means no gear inserted.
• FPS = Number of frames rendered per second

When applicable, an additional line indicationg whether Autopilot is active or not will be shown.

An example of the basic HUD for Diesel locomotives:

### 7.4.14. Electric Locomotives – Additional information¶

For electric locomotives information about the pantograph state is also shown, as well as info about the circuit breaker state and whether the locomotive has power (at least one pantograph raised and circuit breaker closed) or not.

### 7.4.15. Steam Engine – Additional Information¶

When using a steam engine the following additional information is displayed in the HUD:

• Steam Usage in lbs/h, based on entirely new physics code developed by the Open Rails team. It is calculated by parsing the .eng file for the following parameters: number of cylinders; cylinder stroke; cylinder diameter; boiler volume; maximum boiler pressure; maximum boiler output; exhaust limit; and basic steam usage.
• Boiler pressure.
• Water level.
• Levels of coal and water in %.

An example of the basic HUD for Steam locomotives:

For a full list of parameters, see Developing OR Content - Parameters and Tokens

The default firing setting is automatic fireman. If manual firing is engaged with <Ctrl+F>, then additional information is included:

### 7.4.16. Multiplayer – Additional Information¶

If a multiplayer session is active, the following additional information is shown: the actual status of the player (dispatcher, helper or client), the number of players connected and the list of trains with their distances from the train of the player viewing the computer.

## 7.5. Map Window¶

Use the map window to monitor and control train operation.

The map window is opened and closed from the graphics window by pressing <Ctrl+9>. You can toggle between the graphics window and an opened map window by pressing <Alt+Tab>.

The map window contains 2 tabs: Dispatcher and Timetable. Both provide maps of the route with each train following its own path.

The map window is resizable and can also be maximized, e.g. on a second display.

To pan, use the left mouse button to drag the map around.

To zoom, use left and right mouse buttons together and drag vertically or use the mouse wheel.

To zoom in centred on a location, press Shift and click the left mouse button at that location.

To zoom out from a location, press Alt and click the left mouse button.

To zoom out fully, press Ctrl and click the left mouse button.

### 7.5.1. Dispatcher Tab¶

The dispatcher window shows the route layout, monitors the movement of all trains and allows you to change switches and signals. While the player train is identified by the 0 label, AI trains are identified by an Id number (as shown in the Extended HUD for Dispatcher Information), followed by the service name. Static consists are identified as in MSTS.

The state of the signals is shown (only three states are drawn), that is

• Stop – drawn in red
• Clear_2 – drawn in green
• while all signals with restricting aspect are drawn in yellow.

The state of the switches is also shown. A switch shown with a black dot indicates the main route, while a grey dot indicates a side route.

When the Draw path is checked, the first part of the path that the train will follow is drawn in red. If a trailing switch in the path is not in the correct position for the path, a red X is shown on it.

When left- or right-clicking on a signal, a pop-up menu appears:

Using the mouse, you can force the signal to Stop, Approach or Proceed. Later you can return it to System Controlled mode.

For signals using the TrainHasCallOn functions as described here, an additional option labeled Enable CallOn will appear in the pop-up menu. The use of this function allows a train to enter into an occupied platform if the dispatcher allows so.

By left- or right-clicking on a switch, a small pop-up menu with the two selections Main route and Side route appears. By clicking on them you can throw the switch, provided the OR AI dispatcher allows it.

Using the dispatcher window for AI trains is described here below.

The two checkboxes Pick Signals and Pick Switches are checked as default. You can uncheck one of them when a signal and a switch are superimposed in a way that it is difficult to select the desired item.

You can click a switch (or signal) in the dispatcher window and press <Ctrl+Alt+G> to jump to that switch with the free-roam (8-key) camera.

If you click on View Self the dispatcher window will center on the player train. However, if the train moves, centering will be lost.

You can select a train by left-clicking with the mouse its green reproduction in the dispatcher window, approximately half way between the train’s head and its name string. The train body becomes red. Then if you click on the button See in game the main Open Rails window will show this train in the views for the 2, 3, 4 or 6 keys, (and the 5-key view if available for this train). Display of the new train may require some time for OR to compute the new image if the train is far away from the previous camera view.

Take into account that continuous switching from train to train, especially if the trains are far away, can lead to memory overflows.

If after a train selection you click on Follow the dispatcher window will remain centered on that train.

#### 7.5.1.1. Using dispatcher tab for AI trains¶

What is described here is valid only for activity mode and explore in activity mode.

There are cases where it would be advisable to re-route an AI train to manage standoffs, train passings, train priorities. In this case, using the dispatcher window it is possible to re-route an AI train (e.g. on a siding) and then to get it back on the original route. The feature anyhow also allows to re-route it without getting it back on the original route.

It is suggested to look at this video which explains some practical case https://youtu.be/-f0XVg7bSgU before continuing reading.

To perform this correctly and in a way closer to reality, some rules have to be followed. The concept is that switches must be manually thrown only if they aren’t reserved by a train. To be sure of this it is necessary to force to stop the last signal(s) between train(s) and switch, in case such signal is not already at stop. Once the switch is manually thrown, the signal in front of the train that has to be re-routed must be set to the “System controlled” state if it had been forced to stop before. At that point OR breaks down the old train’s route and re-computes a new one, taking into account the moved switch. More switches may be forced on the route (e.g. both the switches to enter the siding and the ones to re-enter the main line).

Signals must never be forced to clear or approach.

If an AI train is re-routed on a route which isn’t at the moment re-entering the original route, its path information in the dispatcher info HUD is displayed in yellow.

Station platform stops are re-assigned to adjacent platforms, if available. Events and waiting points in the abandoned part of route will be lost.

The re-routed train may be also the player train (be it autopiloted or not).

### 7.5.2. Timetable Tab¶

This tab shows the same route and trains as the dispatch tab but, with its focus on a timetable of trains, is provided to assist timetable builders.

In this tab, for clarity, you can use the checkboxes to hide or reveal the labels for platforms, sidings, switches, signals and trains. The simulation time is also on view.

As shown below, the basic red train label identifies the train.

Trains are drawn in green except that locos are drawn in brown. To indicate direction, the leading vehicle is draw in a lighter shade.

The “Active trains” selection shows trains that are currently delivering a service. The “All trains” selection also shows inactive and static trains with labels in dark red.

Inactive trains are not part of a current service - i.e. their start time has not been reached or they have arrived at their destination and not yet been re-formed for another service - see #dispose commands.

Static trains do not move and are shown in gray. They created with the \$static command.

When you select the “Train state” checkbox, the train labels extend to provide key information matching that from the HUD as shown below:

The path element of the train state can be very lengthy, so this is only shown where the path contains the characters # & * ^ ~ which indicate a track section that is in contention.

In the image below, train 192 crosses the path of train 117.

The “Signal state” checkbox reveals the aspect of each signals and also indicates the id number of the train that is approaching. In this image, signal 462 is showing an APPROACH_1 aspect for train 114.

The adjustment for “Daylight offset (hrs)” is provided for convenience to advance the sun as it moves across the sky so that night time trains can be more easily observed in daylight.

## 7.6. Additional Train Operation Commands¶

OR supports an interesting range of additional train operation commands. Some significant ones are described here.

### 7.6.1. Diesel Power On/Off¶

With the key <Shift+Y> the player diesel engine is alternately powered on or off. At game start the engine is powered on.

With the key <Ctrl+Y> the helper diesel locomotives are alternately powered on or off. At game start the engines are powered on.

Note that by using the Car Operation Menu you can also power on or off the helper locomotives individually.

### 7.6.2. Initialize Brakes¶

Entering this command fully releases the train brakes. Usually the train must be fully stopped for this to be allowed. This action is usually not prototypical. Check the keyboard assignment for the keys to be pressed. The command can be useful in three cases:

• A good number of locomotives do not have correct values for some brake parameters in the .eng file; MSTS ignores these; however OR uses all these parameters, and it may not allow the brakes to release fully. Of course, it would be more advisable to correct these parameters.
• It may happen that the player does not want to wait for the time needed to recharge the brakes; however the use of the command in this case is not prototypical of course.
• The player may wish to immediately connect brake lines and recharge brakes after a coupling operation; again, the use of the command is not prototypical.

Note that this command does not work if the Emergency Brake button has been pressed – the button must be pressed again to cancel the emergency brake condition.

For a full list of parameters, see Developing OR Content - Parameters and Tokens

### 7.6.3. Connect/Disconnect Brake Hoses¶

This command should be used after coupling or decoupling. As the code used depends on keyboard layout, check the keys to be pressed as described in keyboard options or by pressing F1 at runtime. More information on connecting brakes and manipulating the brake hose connections can be found here and here.

### 7.6.4. Doors and Mirror Commands¶

Note that the standard keys in OR for these commands are different from those of MSTS.

### 7.6.5. Wheelslip Reset¶

With the keys <Ctrl+X> you get an immediate wheelslip reset.

Advanced adhesion can be enabled or disabled by pressing <Ctrl+Alt+X>.

### 7.6.7. Request to Clear Signal¶

When the player train has a red signal in front or behind it, it is sometimes necessary to ask for authorization to pass the signal. This can be done by pressing <Tab> for a signal in front and <Shift+Tab> for a signal behind. You will receive a voice message reporting if you received authorization or not. On the Track monitor window the signal colours will change from red to red/white if permission is granted.

### 7.6.8. Change Cab¶

All locomotives and some passenger cars have a forward-facing cab which is configured through an entry in the ENG file. For example, the MSTS Dash9 file TRAINSET\DASH9\dash9.eng contains the entry:

CabView ( dash9.cvf )


Where a vehicle has a cab at both ends, the ENG file may also contain an entry for a reversed cab:

CabView ( dash9_rv.cvf )


OR will recognise the suffix _rv as a rear-facing cab and make it available as follows.

When double-heading, banking or driving multiple passenger units (DMUs and EMUs), your train will contain more than one cab and OR allows you to move between cabs to drive the train from a different position. If you change to a rear-facing cab, then you will be driving the train in the opposite direction.

If there are many cabs in your train, pressing <Ctrl+E> moves you through all forward and rear-facing cabs in order up to the last cab in the train. If you end up in a rear-facing cab, your new forward direction will be your old backward direction. So you will now drive the train in the opposite direction.

A safety interlock prevents you from changing cabs unless the train is stationary and the direction lever is in neutral with the throttle closed.

### 7.6.9. Train Oscillation¶

You can have train cars oscillating (swaying) by hitting <Ctrl+V>; if you want more oscillation, click <Ctrl+V> again. Four levels, including the no-oscillation level, are available by repeating <Ctrl+V>.

### 7.6.10. Manual emergency braking release¶

In some cases where the emergency braking is triggered by the simulator, it is possible to release the emergency braking by pressing <Shift+Backspace>.

The cases where the reset is allowed are:

• Signal passed at danger
• Trailed misaligned switch

## 7.7. Engaging a turntable or a transfertable¶

Turntable and transfertable operation is possible in explore mode, activity mode and timetable mode.

A turntable or transfertable can be moved by the player only if it is viewed by him on the screen. If more than one turntable or transfertable is on view, the nearest one can be moved. The trainset (or trainsets) to be rotated or translated must be completely on the turntable or transfertable to start rotation. Messages of type “Train front on turntable” and “train rear on turntable” help stating that the train is fully on the rotating or transferring bridge. Before starting rotating or translating the train must be fully stopped, with reverser in neutral position and zeroed throttle. Moreover, if in activity or timetable mode, the player must first pass to manual mode pressing <Ctrl+M>. At this point you can rotate the turntable clockwise (or move the trasfertable to the right of its origin) with keys <Alt+C>, and counterclockwise (or move the trasfertable to the left of its origin) with keys <Ctrl+C>. You must keep the keys pressed to continue rotation or translation . When the first of the two rails of the rotating or translating bridge is between the two rails where you want to stop, release the keys. Rotation or translation will continue up to perfect alignment. If necessary exit from manual mode (if you are again on a path in activity mode) and move the loco out of the turntable or transfertable. During rotation the train is in Turntable state (this can be seen in the Track Monitor).

It is also possible to rotate or translate standalone wagons. They have to be pushed or pulled to the turntable or transfertable, the locomotive must exit the turntable or transfertable and the wagon can be rotated or translated. It is suggested to read also this paragraph to better understand what is possible with turntables and transfertables.

Provided that the wagons and the container cranes in the route fulfill the rules indicated here, containers can be unloaded and loaded on wagons at locations where a container crane is present.

The loading and unloading operations are started by the player, by pressing the key <T> for loading, and the key <Shift-T> . The operation is performed on the first wagon (starting from the locomotive) which is within the container crane displacement range and which fulfills the required conditions (e.g. loading space available for loading, container present for unloading). So, if a train has only empty wagons and the locomotive is within the container crane displacement range, the first wagon is loaded first, then the second and so on up to the last wagon within the crane displacement range. At that point, if there are further wagons to be loaded, the train must be moved forward so that a new group of wagons is within the crane displacement range, and Load operations can be resumed.

In some cases it can occur that during a load operation the crane stops motion and the following message appears on the display: "Wagon out of range: move wagon towards crane by {0} metres"; this occurs when the wagon is at the boundary of the crane displacement range; the player must move the wagon towards the inside of the crane displacement range and stop the train. The crane will then continue its loading mission up to the end.

Saves (key <F2>) are rejected and a message appears on the display when a loading or unloading operation is ongoing.

## 7.9. Autopilot Mode¶

When in activity mode or in Explore in activity mode, through this feature it is possible to stay in the cab of the player train, but to let Open Rails move the train, respecting path, signals, speeds and station stops.

It is possible to switch the player train between autopilot mode and player driven mode at run time.

Autopilot mode is not a simulation of a train running with cruise control; instead, it is primarily a way to test activities more easily and quickly; but it can also be used to run an activity (or part of it, as it is possible to turn autopilot mode on or off at runtime) as a trainspotter or a visitor within the cab.

Autopilot mode is active only in activity mode (i.e. not in explorer or timetable modes).

When starting the game with any activity, you are in player driving mode. If you press Alt+A, you enter the autopilot mode: you are in the loco’s cabview with the train moving autonomously accordingly to path and station stops and of course respecting speed limits and signals. You still have control over the horn, bell, lights, doors, and some other controls that do not affect train movement. The main levers are controlled by the autopilot mode, and indications are correct.

You can at any moment switch back to player driven mode by pressing <Alt+A>, and can again switch to autopilot mode by again pressing <Alt+A>.

When in player driven mode you can also change cab or direction. However, if you return to autopilot mode, you must be on the train’s path; other cases are not managed. When in player driven mode you can also switch to manual, but before returning to autopilot mode you must first return to auto mode.

Station stops, waiting points and reverse points are synchronized as far as possible in the two modes.

Cars can also be uncoupled in autopilot mode (but check that the train will stop in enough time, otherwise it is better to change to player driven mode). A static consist can also be coupled in autopilot mode.

The Request to Clear signal (<Tab> key) works in the sense that the signal opens. However in autopilot mode at the moment that the train stops you must switch to player driven mode to pass the signal and then you can return to autopilot mode.

Note that if you run with Advanced Adhesion enabled, you may have wheelslip when switching from autopilot mode to player driven mode.

The jerky movements of the levers in autopilot mode are the result of the way that OR pilots the train.

## 7.10. Changing the Train Driven by the Player¶

### 7.10.1. General¶

This function only works in activity mode, and allows the player to select another (existing) train from a list and to start driving it.

This function can be called more than once. A new information window has been created to support this function: the Train List window (opened with Alt+F9). It contains a list of all of the AI trains and of the static trains equipped with a locomotive with cab, plus the player train.

Here an example of an initial situation:

The current player train is shown in red. The star at the end of the line indicates that the cameras (cab camera is managed differently) are currently linked to that train.

AI trains whose loco(s) have at least a cab are shown in green. They are eligible for player train switching.

Static trains with loco and cab are shown in yellow.

Other AI trains are shown in white.

By left-clicking in the list for the first time on an AI train, the cameras become linked to that train. A red star appears at the end of the line. This is partially equivalent to clicking on <Alt+9>, but in this method the desired train is immediately selected and may become the player train.

Here is the intermediate situation:

By left-clicking a second time on the AI train (usually when it has completely appeared on the screen - if it is far away from the player train this can require several seconds to load the world around the train) the switch of control occurs.

The AI train string now becomes red and is moved to the first position.The train can be driven, or set to autopilot mode. The former player train becomes an AI train.

Here is the final situation:

If the second left-click was performed with the Shift key down, the former player train still becomes an AI train, but it is put in a suspended mode (only if its speed is 0). It won’t move until it becomes a player train again. A suspended train is shown in orange color on the Train List window.

The new player train can can be switched to manual mode, can also request to pass signals at danger with the <Tab> command, and can be moved outside of its original path. However before switching control to still another train, the new player train must be returned to the original path or put in suspend mode; or else it will disappear, as occurs for AI trains running outside their path.

The sequence may be restarted to switch to a new train or to switch back to the initial player train.

Train switching also works in activity mode together with multiplayer mode, in the sense that the dispatcher player can switch its played train, and the related information is sent to the client players.

The Train List window is also available in Timetable mode. In this case the names of all trains except the player train are shown in white (they can’t be driven), however with a single click on a train in the window the external view cameras become linked to that train, as occurs with the Alt-9 command described further below.

### 7.10.2. Switching to a static train¶

In the Train List window the drivable static consists (that is the ones that have at least an engine provided with a cab) are also listed (in yellow color).

To ease recognition static consists are named STATIC plus the ID number as present in the .act file (e.g. STATIC - 32768).

The procedure to select a static consist in order to drive it is similar to that used to drive another non-static train train: with the first click on the static consist line in the Train List window the camera (if there wasn’t the Cab camera active) moves to the static consist. With the second click the game enters into the cab of the static consist. If the second click occurs with the Shift key pressed, the old player train goes into a suspended state (else it enters autopilot mode, autonomously moving itself along its path).

The static consist becomes a standard train without a path - a pathless train. It runs in manual mode, and so it can be managed with all the thrills and frills available for manual mode. Signals can be cleared in the dispatcher window or alternatively requests for permission can be issued, switches can be moved, direction can be changed, cars can be coupled and uncoupled. If the train goes out of control (e.g. because of SPAD), CTRL+M has to be pressed first to exit emergency braking.

With stopped pathless train, if a new player train is selected in the Train List window, the pathless train returns to being a STATIC consist.

The pathless train can also couple to another train (e.g. an AI train or the initial player train). The coupled train becomes incorporated into the pathless train, but now more possibilities are available:

• The pathless train incorporating the AI train continues to be driven as a pathless train; later on the run it could uncouple the incorporated train, which would continue autonomously if it is still on its path.
• By clicking once on the incorporated AI train line in the Train List window it is the pathless train that becomes absorbed into the AI train, which now can operate on its path in autopilot mode or in player driven mode.
• Once the pathless train has coupled to the AI train, an uncouple operation can be performed with the F9 window (between any couple of cars). The pathless train can be driven further (with modified composition) and also the AI train can run further, provided both retain at least one locomotive.

### 7.10.3. Waiting point considerations¶

A waiting point icon showing a hand has been added for the Track Monitor, that is shown when WPs (waiting points) for new player trains are met in the path. This because the player should know that his train (when run as AI train) would stop at a point for a certain time. The WP is red when approaching it. When the train stops at it, it becomes yellow, and disappears when the time to depart is reached. When the new player train is run in autopilot mode, the train automatically stops for the required time at the WP.

If the activity foresees that the new player train has to execute an Extended AI Shunting function, OR allows this function to be executed. When the train runs in autopilot mode such functions are executed automatically; when it runs in player driven mode, the player must act to uncouple cars; in this case pop-up messages based on the activity events window appear to help the player.

Care has been taken when the player is driving a train that was foreseen to disappear due to an Extended AI Shunting function, as e.g. when it merges into another train or when it is part of a join-and-split function and is incorporated within another train. In these cases, when the coupling occurs, the player is automatically moved to the train that remains alive.

## 7.11. Changing the View¶

Open Rails provides all of the MSTS views plus additional view options:

• A 3D interior cabview option (where a 3D cabview file is available);
• Control of the view direction using the mouse (with the right-hand button pressed);
• The exterior views (keys 2,3,4,6) and the interior view (key 5) can be attached to any train in the simulation by the Alt+9 key as described below;
• The <Alt+F9> key shows the Train List window, which not only allows attaching the exterior views to any train, but also, in Activity mode, to move to the Cab and drive any train in the simulation;
• when in passenger view (key 5) it is possible to toggle the viewpoint from one side to the other of the wagon, and to jump to other viewpoints if defined, as described below;
• a “special viewpoint” trackside view camera is available, as described below.

All of the required key presses are shown by the F1 Help key in the game. Note that some of the key combinations are different in Open Rails than in MSTS. For instance, in Open Rails the cab Headout views from the cab view are selected by the Home and End keys, and the view direction is manipulated by the four arrow keys, or the mouse with the right-hand button depressed.

The commands for each of the views are described below.

• Key <1> opens the driver’s view from the interior of the controlling cab of the player locomotive.
• In case the 2D view is selected, the 2D view can be cycled between the fixed left, front, and right views with the <Left> and <Right> arrow keys. The cab itself can be hidden with the <Shift+1> key. (The 2D view is constructed from three 2D images, so the actual camera position can only be modified by editing the contents of the .cvf file.) If there is a mismatch between the aspect ratio of the cab and the aspect ratio of the monitor, OR will clip the cab and show only the portion that fits within the display. This clip can be panned around to reveal the rest of the cab with the <Up>, <Down>, <Alt+Left>, and <Alt+Right> keys. Alternatively, if placed into letterboxing mode, by using the <Ctrl+1> key, OR will render the full cab without a clip and cover the remaining space with black bars.
• In case the 3D view is selected, the camera position and view direction are fully player controllable.
• Key <Alt+1> switches between 2D and 3D cabs if both are available.
• The entire cab view can be moved to other cabs (if available) in the player train by successive presses of <Ctrl+E>; the train must be stopped and the direction switch in Neutral.
• The headout views (if available) are selected by <Home> (right hand side, looking forward) or <End> (left hand side, looking back) and the headout view direction is controlled by the mouse with the right button depressed. If there are multiple locomotives, <Alt+PgUp> and <Alt+PgDn> move the headout views.

Rotation of the camera view in any direction is controlled by the mouse with the right-hand button depressed (or alternatively by the four arrow keys). The camera’s position is moved forward or backward along the train axis with the PageUp and PageDown keys, and moved left or right or up or down with <Alt> + the four arrow keys. The headout views (if available) are selected by <Home> (right hand side, looking forward) or <End> (left hand side, looking back) and the outside view direction is controlled by the mouse with the right button depressed.

• Keys <2> and <3> open exterior views that move with the active train; these views are centered on a particular target car in the train. The target car or locomotive can be changed by pressing <Alt+PgUp> to select a target closer to the head of the train and <Alt+PgDn> to select a target toward the rear. The 2-View selects the train’s head end as the initial target, the 3-View the last car. Alt+Home resets the target to the front, <Alt+End> to the rear of the train. With commands <Shift+Alt+7(Numpad)> and <Shift+Alt+1(Numpad)> cameras 2 or 3 move gently forward or backward along a stopped or moving train. By pressing a second time the key sequence the motion stops.

The camera’s position with respect to the target car is manipulated by the four arrow keys – left or right arrows rotate the camera’s position left or right, up or down arrows rotate the camera’s position up or down while remaining at a constant distance from the target. The distance from the camera to the target is changed by zooming with the <PgUp> and <PgDn> keys. Rotation of the camera view direction about the camera’s position is controlled by holding down the <Alt> key while using the arrow buttons, or by moving the mouse with the right mouse button depressed. The scroll wheel on the mouse zooms the screen image; the field of view is shown briefly. <Ctrl+8> resets the view angles to their default position relative to the current target car.

• Key <4> is a trackside view from a fixed camera position with limited player control - the height of the camera can be adjusted with the up and down arrow keys. Repeated pressing of the 4-key may change the position along the track.
• Key <Shift+4> is a special viewpoint trackside view: the camera locates itself at platforms, or looks at the train following a spawned road car along the road, or at a level crossing, when such special viewpoints are near to the train; else it behaves like the standard trackside view camera. When the camera follows a spawned road car, speed of the road car can be increased and decreased within certain limits with keys <9(NumKey)> and <3(NumKey)> to adjust the speed of the camera with that of the train. By pressing key <Shift+4> when the camera is on a special viewpoint, another one, if available, is selected.
• Key <5> is an interior view that is active if the active train has a passenger view declaration in any of its cars (or in the caboose). The view direction can be rotated by the arrow keys or the mouse with right button pressed. The camera position is moved forward or backward along the train axis with the PageUp and PageDown keys, and moved left or right or up or down with <Alt> + the four arrow keys. Successive presses of the <5> key will move the view to successive views (if they exist) within the active train. Note that the active train may be an AI train selected by <Ctrl+9>. By pressing <Shift+5> the viewpoint can be toggled to the other side of the wagon (if it was right side, it moves to left side and vice-versa). If more viewpoints are defined for such wagon as explained here, pressing <Shift+5> moves through the various viewpoints.
• Key <6> is the brakeman’s view – the camera is assumed to be at either end of the train, selected by <Alt+Home> and <Alt+End>. Rotation is controlled by the arrow keys or mouse with right button depressed. There is no brakeman’s view for a single locomotive.
• Key <8> is the free camera view; the camera starts from the current Key-2 or Key-3 view position, and moves forward (<PgUp> key) or back (<PgDn> key) along the view direction. The direction is controlled by the arrow keys or the mouse with right button depressed. The speed of motion is controlled by the <Shift> (increase) or <Ctrl> (decrease) keys. Open Rails saves the position of previous Key 8 views and can recall them by repeatedly pressing <Shift+8>.
• <Alt+9> is an ORTS feature: it controls the target train for the Key 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 views during activities or timetable operations. If there is more than one active train or there are consists declared in the activity for pickup, pressing this key combination will set the view to display each train or consist in turn. To return to the player train, press the <9> key. There may be a delay for each change of view as Open Rails calculates the new image. The cab view and data values in the F4 window always remain with the Player train. To directly select which train is to be shown either use the Dispatcher Window or the <Alt+F9> option described below. In the Dispatcher Window, locate the train that you wish to view, and click the mouse on it until the block representing it turns red; then click on the button Show in game in the Dispatcher Window and then return to the Open Rails window.
• <Alt+F9> is an enhancement of the <Alt+9> feature that displays the Train List window showing the names of all of the currently active trains. Click on the name of the desired train to move the exterior views to the selected train. In Activity mode, double-clicking on a train’s name in this window transfers the Cabview and control of the selected train to the player. In Timetable mode, only the exterior views are selected.
• Key <9> resets the target train for the Key 2,3,4,5 and 6 views to the Player train.

Holding the <Shift> key with any motion command speeds up the movement, while holding the <Ctrl> key slows it.

Note that view direction control using the mouse with right button pressed differs slightly from using <Alt> + the arrow keys – the view direction can pass through the zenith or nadir, and the direction of vertical motion is then reversed. Passing back through the zenith or nadir restores normal behavior.

Whenever frame rates fall to unacceptable levels players are advised to adjust camera positions to cull some models from being in view and to adjust the camera again to include more models when frame rates are high.

Some camera views (among them 2Dcabview, 3Dcabview and passenger view) feature the <Ctrl+8> command, that resets the view position to the default one.

## 7.12. Toggling Between Windowed Mode and Full-screen¶

You can toggle at any time between windowed mode and full-screen by pressing <Alt+Enter>.

## 7.13. Modifying the Game Environment¶

### 7.13.1. Time of Day¶

In activity mode Open Rails software reads the StartTime from the MSTS .act file to determine what the game time is for the activity. In combination with the longitude and latitude of the route and the season, Open Rails computes the actual sun position in the sky. This provides an extremely realistic representation of the time of day selected for the activity. For example, 12 noon in the winter will have a lower sun position in the northern hemisphere than 12 noon in the summer. Open Rails game environment will accurately represent these differences.

Once the activity is started, Open Rails software allows the player to advance or reverse the environment time of day independently of the movement of trains. Thus, the player train may sit stationary while the time of day is moved ahead or backward. The keys to command this depend from the national settings of the keyboard, and can be derived from the key assignment list shown by pressing <F1>.

In addition, Open Rails offers functionality similar to the time acceleration switch for MSTS.

Use <Ctrl+Alt+PgUp(Numkey)> or <Ctrl+Alt+PgDn(Numkey)> keys to increase or decrease the speed of the game clock. <Ctrl+Alt+Home(Numkey)> resets the speed.

In a multiplayer session, all clients’ time, weather and season selections are overridden by those set by the server.

### 7.13.2. Weather¶

When in activity mode Open Rails software determines the type of weather to display from the Weather parameter in the MSTS Activity file. In the other modes the weather can be selected in the start menu. A Weather Change Activity Event can be included in an activity that will modify the weather during the activity.

For a full list of parameters, see Developing OR Content - Parameters and Tokens

### 7.13.3. Modifying Weather at Runtime¶

The following commands are available at runtime (keys not shown here can be found in the key assignment list obtained pressing F1):

• Overcast increase/decrease: increases and decreases the amount of clouds
• fog increase/decrease
• precipitation increase/decrease
• Precipitation “liquidity” (that is selection between rain and snow with intermediate states) increase/decrease.

These commands are active starting from any initial weather state (clear, rain, snow).

By selecting the desired precipitation liquidity before increasing precipitation, it is possible to decide whether to pass from clear to rain or from clear to snow weather.

Moreover, pressing <Alt+P> can abruptly change the weather from clear to raining to snowing and back to clear.

### 7.13.4. Randomized Weather in activities¶

By activating the related experimental option as described here the player may experience an initial weather that varies every time the activity is executed, and that varies in a random way during activity execution.

### 7.13.5. Season¶

In activity mode Open Rails software determines the season, and its related alternative textures to display from the Season parameter in the MSTS Activity file. In other modes the player can select the season in the start menu.

For a full list of parameters, see Developing OR Content - Parameters and Tokens

## 7.14. Activity randomization¶

By activating the related experimental option as described here the player may experience slightly or significantly different activity behaviours in every different activity run. It must be stated that it is not guaranteed that every randomization leads to a realistic and/or manageable activity. However it must be considered that using features like player train switching and manually setting switches and signals many situations can be solved. This even contributes to generate a pleasant activity run.

Following activity features are randomized:

• diesel locomotive compressor blowdown: when this occurs a message is displayed, output power and force go to zero, and the smoke gets white (to have a diesel smoke colour change dieselsmoke.ace must be replaced with a better one; there is some freely available from the website of some payware trainset providers. Moreover the parameter of the third parameter line in the Exhaust1 block within the .eng file of the diesel loco should have at least the value of 0.3, which by the way improves in general the lookout of the smoke). Wheh this event occurs, the train should be stopped as soon as possible, the defect loco should be put out of the MU chain and then switched off (these two operations can be done with the Car operations window). The defect loco is evidenced in red in the train operations window.
• diesel or electric locomotive bogie unpowered; when this occurs a message is displayed, and output power and force are halved. The defect loco is again evidenced in red in the train operations window. The total traction time is accumulated. In the first 30, 15, 10 traction minutes (for randomization levels 1, 2, 3) no locomotive failures occur. After that for each loco and at every simulator update (which has the same frequency as the FPS) a random number between 0 and 199999 is generated. If it is higher than 199998, 199992, 199899 for the three randomization levels the failure is generated. The failure may also occur on the player loco. No more than a faulty loco is possible on a train.
• freight car with brakes stuck: in this case the total braking time and the total countinuous braking time are accumulated. In this case the time with surely no failures varies from 20 to about 7 minutes for the total braking time and from 10 to about 3.5 minutes for the total continuous braking time. After such time for each car a random number between 0 and 199999 is generated at every simulator update. If the number is higher than 199996, 199992, and 199969 for the three randomization levels the failure is generated. The car will brake continuously, will be shown in red in the train operations window and will squeal if an .sms file named BrakesStuck.sms is present in the <Train Simulator\Sound> directory. Here an example of such file. Of course when this event occurs it is advisable to uncouple the wagon as soon as possible from the train. No more than a car will fail.

All these train failures occur only on the player train.

• AI train efficiency: the initial AI train efficiency (which determines max accelerations and decelerations and in some cases also max speed) is randomized, that is it may be increased or decreased around its preset value for a maximum of 20%, only in respectively 70% , 60% and 50% of cases when randomization level is 3, 2 or 1, and the increase and decrease is computed with a pseudonormal distribution curve, that is smaller changes are more likely than bigger changes. The same AI train efficiency randomization occurs after every station stop.
• station depart time: in the same 70% , 60% and 50% of cases the number of passengers boarding at a station are increased or decreased of a random amount that depends also from randomization level. Departure time therefore may be anticipated or, more often, delayed.
• waiting point delay: in the same 70% , 60% and 50% of cases a waiting point delay is introduced, that can have a maximum value of 25 seconds for the standard WPs and 5 minutes for the absolute WPs. Such maximum values depend also from randomization level.

For a full list of parameters, see Developing OR Content - Parameters and Tokens

## 7.15. Screenshot - Print Screen¶

Press the keyboard <PrintScreen> key to capture an image of the game window. This will be saved by default in the file C:\Users\<username>\Pictures\Open Rails\Open Rails <date and time>.png

Although the image is taken immediately, there may be a short pause before the confirmation appears. If you hold down the Print Screen key, then OR takes multiple images as fast as it can.

The key to capture the current window – <Alt+PrintScreen> – is not intercepted by OR.

## 7.16. Suspending or Exiting the Game¶

You can suspend or exit the game by pressing the ESC key at any time. The window shown at the right will appear.

The window is self-explanatory.

If you are running OR in a Window, you can also exit OR by simply clicking on the x on the right top of the OR window.

## 7.17. Save and Resume¶

Open Rails provides Save and Resume facilities and keeps every save until you choose to delete it.

During the game you can save your session at any time by pressing <F2>.

You can view the saved sessions by choosing an activity and then pressing the Resume/Replay... button.

This will display the list of any Saves you made for this activity:

To help you identify a Save, the list provides a screenshot and date and also distance travelled in meters and the time and position of the player’s train. This window can be widened to show the full width of the strings in the left panel.

### 7.17.1. Saves from Previous OR Versions¶

You should be aware that these Saves will only be useful in the short term as each new version of Open Rails will mark Saves from previous versions as potentially invalid (e.g. the second entry in the list below).

When you resume from such a Save, there will be a warning prompt.

The Save will be tested during the loading process. If a problem is detected, then you will be notified.

This Save and any Saves of the same age or older will be of no further value and will be marked as invalid automatically (e.g. the 3rd entry in the list). The button in the bottom left corner of the menu deletes all the invalid Saves for all activities in Open Rails.

## 7.18. Save and Replay¶

As well as resuming from a Save, you can also replay it just like a video. All the adjustments you made to the controls (e.g. opening the throttle) are repeated at the right moment to re-create the activity. As well as train controls, changes to the cameras are also repeated.

Just like a black box flight recorder, Open Rails is permanently in recording mode, so you can save a recording at any time just by pressing <F2> Save.

Normally, you would choose the replay option by Menu > Resume > Replay from start.

A second option Menu > Resume > Replay from previous save lets you play back a shortened recording. It resumes from the most recent Save it can find and replays from that point onwards. You might use it to play back a 5 minute segment which starts an hour into an activity.

A warning is given when the replay starts and a replay countdown appears in the Alt+F5 Head Up Display.

Warning

Countdown

By default, the simulation pauses when the replay is exhausted. Use Pause replay at end on the Saved Games window to change this.

Little can usefully be achieved by adjusting the train controls during replay, but the camera controls can be freely adjusted. If changes are made (e.g. switching to a different camera view or zooming out), then replay of the camera controls is suspended while replay of the train controls continues. The result is a bit like editing a video. To resume the replay of the camera controls, just press Esc to open the Pause Menu and then choose Continue playing.

A possible future development may be to edit the replay file to adjust times or to add messages to provide a commentary. This would allow you to build demonstrations and tutorials.

Replay is a feature which is unique to Open Rails. You can use it to make your own recordings and Open Rails provides a way to exchange them with other players.

### 7.18.1. Exporting and Importing Save Files¶

To export a Save file, use the command: Menu > Options > Resume > Import/export saves > Export to Save Pack

OR will pack the necessary files into a single archive file with the extension ORSavePack and place it in the folder Open Rails\Save Packs.

This ORSavePack file is a zip archive which contains the replay commands, a screenshot at the moment of saving, a Save file (so that Open Rails can offer its Resume option) and a log file. This arrangement means that the ORSavePack archive is ideal for attaching to a bug report.

You can use the Import Save Pack button on the same window to import and unpack a set of files from an ORSavePack archive. They will then appear in your Saved Games window.

## 7.19. Analysis Tools¶

The extended HUDs provide a rich amount of information for analysis, evaluation and to assist in troubleshooting.

You can move through the sequence of HUD displays by repeatedly pressing <Shift+Alt+F5>.

In the extended HUDs the trainsets (locos and cars) are identified by the trainset UiD as defined in the consist file, preceded by a train identification.

### 7.19.1. Extended HUD for Consist Information¶

This page shows in the first line data about the whole train. Under Player you will find the player locomotive UiD followed by an F if the forward cab is selected, and an R if the rear cab is selected.

Tilted is set at YES in case the consist name ends with tilted (e.g. ETR460_tilted.con), in which case it means that it is a tilting train.

Control mode shows the actual control mode. Read more about this here.

Cab aspect shows the aspect of next signal.

In the other lines data about the train cars are shown. Data are mostly self-explanatory. Under Drv/Cabs a D appears if the car is drivable, and an F and/or a R appear if the car has a front and/or a rear cab.

### 7.19.2. Extended HUD for Locomotive Information¶

The next extended HUD display shows locomotive information.

As can be seen from this screenshot related to a fictitious train with a diesel, an electric and a steam loco, information about diesel and electric locomotives is contained on a single line, while information about steam locomotives includes a large set of parameters, which shows the sophistication of OR’s steam physics.

In the bottom part of this HUD two moving graphs show the evolution in time of the throttle value and of the power of the player locomotive (the one where the active cab resides).

### 7.19.3. Extended HUD for Brake Information¶

This extended HUD display includes all the information of the basic HUD plus Brake status information. In the first part specific information for locomotives is shown, while in the second one general information is shown for all cars. After the car UiD the following alphanumeric string shows the brake system (1P: single-pipe system, V: vacuum etc.) and the current state of the air brakes on the unit. More information on this display can be found in Open Rails Braking and F9 Train Operations Monitor.

### 7.19.4. Extended HUD for Train Force Information¶

In the top part of this display some information related to the player locomotive is shown. The information format differs if advanced adhesion has been selected or not in the Simulation Options.

The middle line of information shown (provided that Wind Dependent Resistance is selected in the Options Menu) shows the wind speed and direction, the train direction, and the resulting train/wind vectors for speed and direction.

The table part below the above information, shows the relevant forces acting upon the locos/cars in the train.

The columns are as follows:

Car - the UiD of the car as defined in the car consist file.

Total - the total force acting on the car. This is the sum of the other forces after the signs are properly adjusted.

Motive - the motive force which should only be non-zero for locomotives,
and that becomes negative during dynamic braking.

Brake - the brake force.

Friction - the friction (or resistance) force calculated from the Davis equation. This is in STILL air only.

Gravity - the force due to gravity.

Curve - the resistance forces due to the car being on a curve.

Tunnel - the resistance forces due to the car being in a tunnel.

Wind - the resistance forces due to the car being impacted by wind.

Coupler - the coupler force between this car and the next (negative is pull and positive is push). The F or R symbols indicate whether the coupler is a flexible or rigid coupler respectively.

Slack - indicates the amount of slack (distance due to coupler movement between the cars).

Mass - car mass in kg.

Curve - the radius of the curve.

Brk Frict - friction of the brakes on the car.

Brk Slide - indicates whether the car is skidding due to excessive brake application.

All of the force values will be in Newtons, or the UoM selected by the player.

Many of these values are relative to the orientation of the car, but some are relative to the train. If applicable, two further fields appear: the first is “True” if the car is flipped with respect to the train or False otherwise, while the second field signals coupler overload.

At the bottom of the picture two moving graphs are displayed.

The upper graph displays the motive force in % of the player locomotive. Green colour means tractive force, red colour means dynamic brake force.

The lower graph refers – roughly speaking - to the level of refinement used to compute axle force.

### 7.19.5. Extended HUD for Dispatcher Information¶

The next extended HUD displays Dispatcher Information. It is very useful to troubleshoot activities or timetables. The player train and any AI trains will show in the Dispatcher Information, a line for each train.

A detailed explanation of the various columns follows:

• Train: Internal train number, with P=Passenger and F=Freight.

• Travelled: distance travelled. Gives an indication if all is well. If a train started an hour ago and ‘travelled’ is still 0.0, something’s clearly wrong.

• Speed: present speed.

• Max: maximum allowed speed.

• AI Mode: gives an indication of what the AI train is ‘doing’. Possible states:

• INI: train is initializing. Normally you would not see this.
• STP: train is stopped other than in a station. The reason for the stop is shown in Authority.
• BRK: train is preparing to stop. Does not mean it is actually braking, but it ‘knows’ it has to stop, or at least reduce speed, soon. Reason and distance to the related position, are shown in Authority and Distance.
• ACC: train is accelerating, either away from a stop or because of a raise in allowed speed.
• RUN: train is running at allowed speed.
• FOL: train is following another train in the same signal section. Its speed is now derived from the speed of the train ahead.
• STA: train is stopped in station.
• WTP: train is stopped at waiting point.
• EOP: train is approaching end of path.
• STC: train is Static train, or train is in Inactive mode if waiting for next action.
• AI data : shows throttle (first three digits) and brake (last three digits) positions when AI train is running, but shows departure time (booked) when train is stopped at station or waiting point, or shows activation time when train is in inactive mode (state STC).

• Mode:

• SIGN (signal)
• NODE
• MAN: train is in manual mode (only player train, see here)
• OOC: train is out of control
• EXPL: train is in explorer mode (only player train) When relevant, this field also shows delay (in minutes), e.g. S+05 mean Signal mode, 5 minutes delay.
• Auth: End of “authorization” info - that is, the reason why the train is preparing to stop or slow down. Possible reasons are :

• SPDL: speed limit imposed by speed sign.
• SIGL: speed limit imposed by signal.
• STOP: signal set at state “STOP”.
• REST: signal set at state “RESTRICTED” (train is to reduce speed at approaching this signal).
• EOA: end of authority - generally only occurs in non-signaled routes or area, where authority is based on NODE mode and not SIGNAL mode.
• STAT: station.
• EOR: end of train’s route, or subroute in case the train approaches a reversal point.
• AUX: all other authorization types, including auxiliary action authorizations (e.g. waiting points).

When the control mode is NODE the column Auth can show following strings:

• EOT: end of track
• EOP: end of path
• RSW: switch reserved by another train
• LP: train is in loop
• MXD: free run for at least 5000 meters
• NOP: no path reserved.

When the control mode is OOC the column Auth can show following strings:

• SPAD: passed signal at danger
• RSPD: passed signal at danger running backwards
• OOAU: passed authority limit
• OOPA: out of path
• SLPP: slipped into path
• SLPT: slipped to end of track
• OOTR: out of track
• MASW: misaligned switch.
• Distance: distance to the authority location.

• Signal: aspect of next signal (if any).

• Distance: distance to this signal. Note that if signal state is STOP, and it is the next authority limit, there is a difference of about 30m between authority and signal distance. This is the ‘safety margin’ that AI trains keep to avoid accidentally passing a signal at danger.

• Consist: the first part of the train’s service name. Only for the player, always the PLAYER string is displayed.

• Path: the state of the train’s path. The figure left of the “=” sign is the train’s present subpath counter : a train’s path is split into subpaths when its path contains reversal points. The details between { and } are the actual subpath. Following the final } can be x<N>, this indicates that at the end of this subpath the train will move on to the subpath number N. Path details :

• The path shows all track circuit sections which build this train’s path. Track circuit sections are bounded by nodes, signals or cross-overs, or end-of-track. Each section is indicated by its type:

• - is plain train section.
• > is switch (no distinction is made for facing or trailing switch).
• + is crossover.
• [ is end-of-track.
• Following each section is the section state. Numbers in this state refer to the train numbers as shown at the start of each row. Below, <n> indicates such a number.

• <n> section is occupied by train <n>.
• (<n>) section is reserved for train <n>.
• # (either with <n> or on its own) section is claimed by a train which is waiting for a signal.
• & (always in combination with <n>) section is occupied by more than one train.
• * possible deadlock location - start of a single track section shared with a train running in opposite direction.
• ^ active deadlock - train from opposite direction is occupying or has reserved at least part of the common single track section. Train will be stopped at this location – generally at the last signal ahead of this node.
• ~ active deadlock at that location for other train - can be significant as this other train can block this train’s path.

The dispatcher works by reserving track vector nodes for each train. An AI train will be allowed to move (or start) only if all of the nodes up to the next potential passing location are not reserved for another train. If this condition cannot be met, in Timetable Mode the AI train will not spawn.

There are other reasons why an AI train might not appear in Timetable Mode. The current dispatcher assumes that all routes are unsignaled. The dispatcher issues a track authority (which is similar to a track warrant) to all trains. For an AI train to start, the tracks it needs must not be already reserved for another train. The dispatcher compares the paths of the trains to identify possible passing points and then reserves tracks for a train up until a passing point. When a train gets near the next passing point the reservation is extended to the next one. The end result is that in Timetable Mode an AI train cannot be placed on a track if that section of track is already occupied by or reserved for another train. A section of track is any track bounded by either a switch or a signal.

Also, a train is not created if it would be partly or fully superimposed on an already existing train, or if its path is not long enough for it. This applies to both Timetable Mode and Activity Mode.

### 7.19.6. Extended HUD for Debug Information¶

The last extended HUD display shows Debug information containing:

• Logging enabled: logging status
• Build: date and time Open Rails was compiled
• CPU: processor utilization by Open Rails
• GPU: frame rate, frame time percentiles and graphics feature level
• Memory: number of core memory objects loaded (textures, materials, shapes, and tiles) plus garbage collection statistics
• CPU Memory:
• Private: virtual memory allocated just for Open Rails (not shared with other applications)
• Working set: physical memory in use by Open Rails (including any shared with other applications)
• Private working set: physical memory in use just for Open Rails
• Managed: virtual memory allocated by the .NET runtime (CLR)
• Virtual: virtual memory allocated for any purpose (private + shared + others)
• GPU Memory:
• Committed: all graphics memory allocated for Open Rails
• Dedicated: physical graphics card memory in use by Open Rails
• Shared: system memory shared with the graphics card in use by Open Rails
• Adapter: name and dedicated physical memory of graphics card
• Shadow maps: distance and size of each shadow map level (and texture size)
• Shadow primitives: total primitives (rendered items) and breakdown by shadow map level
• Render primitives: total primitives (rendered items) and breakdown by rendering sequence (RenderPrimitiveSequence in the code)
• Render/Updater/Loader/Sound process: percentage of time each process is active and waiting
• Camera: tile X, tile Z, X, Y, Z, altitude, LOD bias, effective viewing distance, effective distant mountain viewing distance

The primary measurements for comparing and analysing performance are the first column of values (some lines are skipped), so for the image above we have:

• CPU: 10% - very low (warning at 75%)
• GPU: 58 FPS - good (warning at <55 FPS with 60 Hz vertical sync)
• CPU Memory: 211 MB private - very low (~3% of 8 GB)
• GPU Memory: 493 MB committed - low (~24% of 2 GB)
• Highest process (Render): 47% - moderate (warning at 75%)

Also shown are the following graphs of:

• Memory: working set
• GCs: garbage collections
• Frame time: how long each frame takes to render
• Render/Updater/Loader/Sound process: same as textual display above

### 7.19.7. Viewing Interactive Track Items¶

By pressing <Ctrl+Alt+F6> at runtime you get a picture like this one that allows you to take note of the interactive IDs for debugging purposes.

### 7.19.8. Viewing Signal State and Switches¶

By pressing <Ctrl+Alt+F11> you get a picture like the following that shows the state of the signals and switches on the path.

### 7.19.9. Sound Debug Window¶

By pressing <Alt+S> this window opens:

It shows in the upper part the list of all active .sms files (track sound apart); by expanding the detail of a specific .sms file, the list of all sound streams is displayed, as well as their state. On the left the value of the analog sound variables is displayed for the selected .sms file. The volume refers to the first stream of the selected sound file.

Active and inactive sounds toggle passing from internal to external views and vice-versa.

## 7.20. OpenRailsLog.txt Log file¶

When the Logging option in the main window is checked, a log file named OpenRailsLog.txt file is generated. This file contains rich information about the execution of the game session, allowing identification of critical problems. This file should always be attached to requests of support in case of problems.

The contents of the file are often self-explanatory, and therefore can be evaluated by the same contents developer. It includes reports of various errors in the MSTS files which are ignored by OR, including missing sound files, unrecognized terms in some files, etc. Selecting the Experimental Option Show shape warnings allows OR to report errors found in shape files in the log file. It includes also reports about malfunctions in the gaming session, such as trains passing red signals, as well as OR malfunctions.

## 7.21. Code-embedded Logging Options¶

OR source code is freely downloadable; check the http://www.OpenRails.org website for this. Within the code there are some debug options that, when activated, generate specific extended log files, e.g. for analysis of signal and of AI train behavior. Short specific info on this can be provided to people with programming skills.

## 7.22. Testing in Autopilot Mode¶

Autopilot mode is a powerful tool to help in testing activities.